Thursday, 28 August 2014

B.A. ENGLISH (PU) - GUESS PAPER

QUESTION NO. 1
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Democracy".


DEMOCRACY
OUTLINE
(i) Democracy is a popular form of Government. It is practised successfully in many countries of the world.
(ii) Dictatorship is a system of Government in which one party or one person rules the country.
(iii) In democracy there is a full freedom of expressing public opinion.
(iv) Democracy has many defects. It is a difficult form of Government. It is not successful in a country where most of the people are uneducated.
(v) Democracy has failed in Pakistan mainly because of low literacy rate, senseless political parties, poor people and feudal system.
(vi) Democracy in spite of all its defects is better than dictatorship. 

ESSAY
      Abraham Lincoln defined democracy as: 
"Government of the people, by the people, for the people."
     Democracy is a popular form of Government. It is practised successfully in many countries of the world. In this form of Government, people elect their own rulers. In a democratic country, there are many political parties. They take part in election. The party which wins by the majority of vote is declared successful. It is called to form the Government. The rest of the parties are supposed to sit on the opposition benches. In the assembly, important issues are debated and discussed by both the ruling party as well as the opposition party. The decision on different problems of the country is taken after much deliberation. 
     Dictatorship is a system of Government in which one party or one person rules the country. The entire power rests with that party or the ruler. The party comes into power after election. However, unlike democracy, there is no opposition party. All the votes are cast in favour of one party. In dictatorship no one can oppose the ruler. There are many restrictions on the freedom of people. An individual does not enjoy any type of freedom. The radio, the television, the newspaper and other mass media conceal facts. Their main business is to admire and praise the ruling party. In dictatorship an individual does not enjoy any respect. This form of Government is popular in communist countries as Russia, China and East Germany. 
     In democracy there is full freedom of expressing public opinion. An individual enjoys full freedom to think, write and express his views. The press is completely free. The policies of the Government are debated and discussed freely in the newspapers as well as in the Assembly Hall. In democracy, a person enjoys respect and importance. 
     Democracy is linked with justice. Every body has equal right in the eye of law. The voters can choose and remove their rulers according to their own will. This form of Government is popular and successful in America, Britain, India and Japan. Democracy has failed in under-developed countries like Pakistan. It has not worked successfully in many of the Asian countries. The reasons for its failure are the following. 
     Democracy is a difficult system of Government. Only the educated and sensible people can understand and run it. In our country and in many other Asian countries, most of people are uneducated and backward. They cannot understand and real spirit and structure of a democratic system of Government. Most of the people in our country are poor. At the time of election, the voters are bribed and tempted to give their votes in favour of irresponsible and uneducated candidates. In this way, in democracy, the responsible and educated candidates do not return to Assembly.  
     In a democratic form of Government, the candidates use unfair means to win the election. The candidates of the rival party are kidnapped. The ballot boxes are broken and undue pressure is exercised on the officers who conduct the election. In this way, the elections open the gateway to corruption, bribery and selfishness. 
     Democracy has many merits but it has many demerits also. It is known for its inefficiency and slowness. At the time of national emergencies, it fails to cope with the situation. The national issues of great importance are debated and discussed in the Assembly. It takes a long time to arrive at any decision. In this way, many problems of utmost importance remain unsolved in the light of above discussion. We can say that democracy in spite of its defects is still a popular form of Government. It is better than dictatorship.


QUESTION NO. 2
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Computer Education".

COMPUTER EDUCATION
OUTLINE
(i) The increasing utility of computers in every sphere of life has made computer education the need of the day. 
(ii) By computer education, we mean, gaining the know-how of the basic concepts and operations related to a computer.
(iii) Computer education facilitate the use of computers for purposes of communication and entertainment. 
(iv) Computer education increases one's chances of getting a job
(v) Computer education helps one manage one's own business assets and personal finances.
 ESSAY
     Computers find a wide variety of applications in different spheres of life. With an increase in their widespread use and their ever-so-increasing popularity, computer education has become the need of the day. Computers have brought about a revolution across all industries. They have changed the face of society. They are no longer specialized tools to be used by specially trained people. They are ubiquitous and used in almost every sphere of life. Computers are the best means for storage and management of data, they can serve as huge knowledge bases and can be harnessed for all sorts of financial transactions owing to their processing power and storage capacities. As computers are a daily utility, they have gained immense importance in day-to-day life. Their increasing utility has made computer education the need of the day. 
     By computer education, we mean, gaining the know-how of the basic concepts related to a computer and gaining the basic knowledge of computer operation. Knowing about the basic components of a computer, the basic concepts behind the use of computers and the know-how of some of the elementary computer applications constitutes computer education. Learning about the computer basics followed by a practical experience of using a computer is the key to computer education. As computers are widely used today, acquiring computer education is the need of the day.
      Computers are not only storage devices and processing units, but also are excellent communication media. They are the means to access the Internet and get connected to the world. They are also an effective audio-visual media. Computers can be used to access a vast knowledge base and search for information archives over the Internet. Only computer education can facilitate the use of computers for purposes of communication and entertainment. 
     Computer knowledge coupled with certain other job skills increases one's chances of getting a job. Those with knowledge of computers are considered trainable for many kinds of jobs. As most of the jobs involve the use of computers, computer education is an eligibility criterion for almost all the modern-day jobs. Higher education involving network administration, hardware maintenance or software skills open doors for brighter job opportunities. 
     Computer education helps one manage one's own business assets and personal finances. Computers serve as efficient means for management of information. Personal financial assets, medical records and important documents can be stored in an electronic format in a computer system. Today, banking transactions and payments of bills can be done over the Internet. Similarly, online shopping is becoming widely popular. To be in the race, it is very important to take computer education. The word processing applications of a computer serve as an effective means of documentation. The database management software that are a part of computer systems serve as the means of managing large amounts of data. The networking capabilities of a computer facilitate connecting to the Internet to reach out to the world. 
     Computers, which have such a wide variety of applications, are indeed ruling society. To keep up the pace in this fast life of today, computer education is extremely important. Computers are an integral part of life and so is computer education!


QUESTION NO. 3
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Village Uplift".

VILLAGE UPLIFT
OUTLINE
(i) The condition of villages in Pakistan is very miserable and deplorable.
(ii) Much emphasis should be given on the education of villagers.
(iii) Cleanliness of streets and water is badly needed in villages.
(iv) Modern technology should be introduced in the villages for the improvement of agriculture.
(v) Villagers should be advised to shake off a number of old customs and social evils.
 ESSAY
     A group of houses and associated buildings, larger than a hamlet and smaller than a town, situated in a rural area is called a village. A village is the basis of human civilization. However, with the growth of cities the villages have been considerably neglected. There are practically no arrangements for sanitation. Dirty water collects in pools everywhere. Diseases and epidemics kill hundreds of persons every year. The farmers and the artisans who inhabit the villages are mostly poor, uneducated and backward. Struggle and misery are their lot. The landlords, the money lenders and the petty government officials exploit them in every way they like. They villagers have been suffering in misery and poverty for centuries. They work hard but their hard work brings them no profit. Under these circumstances we must try to improve our villages. For the uplift of villages we can do the following things. 
     Firstly, much emphasis should be given on the education of village folks. Ignorance more than anything else, is responsible for the backwardness of the Pakistani peasant. Steeped in age old ignorance the peasant does not know his own interest. If he ignores the laws of health and sanitation, runs into enormous debts, of follows ancient methods of agriculture, it is because he lacks enlightenment. The remedy suggested is that primary education should be made compulsory for both boys and girls. Government should construct required schools and colleges in the villages. 
     Secondly, cleanliness is very essential for the uplift of villages. The ignorant villager is content with passing his days in unhealthy surroundings. He does not care much if streets of the villages are dirty or if houses have no arrangement for fresh air. He allows dirty water to collect in pits and ponds situated about the village., with the result that they attract mosquitoes in and who spread malaria, dengue and trouble. Thus villager is to be exhorted to keep his houses and streets clean by throwing the dung hills and rubbish into pits. The government should not convert cities into large cities, rather they should convert villages into cities. 
      Thirdly, modern technology for agriculture should be provided to the peasants. Agriculture is the main profession of villagers. They are still using the old methods of farming. They work hard but of no avail. Government should provide tractors, threshers, fertilizers, better seed and other farming equipment to the peasants so that they can make farming a paying profession and the economy of the country can go round.  
      Lastly, the villagers are superstitious and conservative folks. Most of them still believe that what was good for their forefathers is good enough for them. So they should be advised to shake off a number of old customs and social evils from which they suffer. It is seen that they spend money lavishly on marriages and births and are prone to be extravagant when they come by money. They are over fond of litigation. They commit murders over trifles, and resort to the court so often that they pay the best part of their income to the lawyers. The peasant, thus, should be advised to get rid of all these evils. 
      Villagers constitute the seventy percentage of our population. Agriculture is the backbone of our economy. So it is the duty of educated people as a nation and obligation of government to uplift the miserable and deplorable condition of villages. By uplifting our villages, we can keep pace with the comity of nations. We can get progress and prosperity.  
    
QUESTION NO. 4
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Social Evils".

SOCIAL EVILS IN PAKISTAN
OUTLINE
(i) Social evils are present in every country. Even the developed countries like America and Britain suffer from them.
(ii) The unfair and imbalanced distribution of wealth is at the root of every social evil.
(iii) The people of Pakistan have great love for collecting wealth. Their excessive fondness for collecting wealth has given birth to many social evils.
(iv) Social evils generate an atmosphere of disorder, anarchy and injustice.
(v) Bribery and corruption have been a routine matter in every field of life.
(vi) Hoarding, black marketing, child lifting, smuggling, horse racing and drinking are some of the social evils that are found in Pakistan.
 ESSAY
     Social evils are present in every country. Even the developed countries like America and Britain suffer from them. In Pakistan, social evils have developed into an institution. Social evils surround us like diseased tress. They are many causes for the growth  and spread of social evils. 
     Firstly, the unfair and imbalance distribution of wealth is at the root of every social evil. 
     Secondly, the people are Pakistan are greedy and ambitious of collecting wealth by fair and foul means. They have become selfish. They have bidden good bye to the life of simplicity and contentment. Their excessive fondness for collecting worldly gains has given birth to many social evils. 
    Social evils eat the very root of every civilized society. They cause great loss to the peace and happiness of people. They generate an atmosphere of disorder, anarchy and injustice. The forces of injustice and evil have a sway. A society surrounded by evils remains backward forever. Its growth becomes stunted. It ceases to have the spark of creativity and growth. Such a society becomes a curse for mankind. 
     There are many social evils which have eaten the very roots of our society,. They are listed below. 
     Bribery and corruption have become a routine matter in every office, department and field of life. Favouritism and nepotism exist everywhere. This has defeated the very concept of justice in Pakistan. It has blackened the face of merit in every walk of life. It has put a stop to true progress, equality and development. 
     Hoarding and black-marketing are the twin evils that cause abnormal inflation. The black marketeers are the enemies of people. They are traitors. They cause the shortage of foodstuff and are responsible for the increase of prices of different commodities. 
     Smuggling is an other social evil which is very harmful to society. The smugglers cause great harm to the economy of country. Foreign goods are smuggled into the country on a large scale. Consequently the local industry, business or agriculture suffer. The government cannot collect taxes on the smuggled goods. Sometimes inferior goods are smuggled and the government cannot exercise any control on them. Therefore inferior goods as medicine, foodstuff may cause a serious damage to human health. 
     Adulteration is an other social evil which is very harmful to society. The adulterators mix cheap and harmful things in food items like milk, honey, spices, pulses and wheat etc. They play with the health of the people. They are a curse to society. 
     Lavish expenditure on ceremonies like marriages like marriages and funerals have become the order of the day. Rich people make a show of their wealth on the marriage of their children. It causes a sense of deprivation among the people. Moreover, this reflects an attitude which feeds on greed, selfishness and vanity. The wastage of wealth for the fulfillment of such bad customs cannot be approved by any sane person. 
      Social evils like gambling, horse racing, honour killing, drinking are a rampant in our society. 
      Social evils are widespread because of ignorance, illiteracy, poverty and injustice. We can eliminate these social evils by two ways; by the enforcement of law and by educating the people against the harms through electronic media.  
    
QUESTION NO. 5
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Religious Extremism".

RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM
OUTLINE
(i) Pakistan is a religious country. It came into being in the name of Islam. But unfortunately, the unity of the Muslims lies in pieces.
(ii) Religious extremism means that one religious group considers its thinking correct and truthful. This leads to hostility against other groups.
(iii) Religious extremism is produced by our emotional and non scientific thinking.
(iv) Lack of modern knowledge breeds religious extremism.
(v) It has generated many evils. It produces distrust and fear.
(vi) It breeds hostility and tension among different groups. This atmosphere of strife halts the economic progress.
 ESSAY
     Religious extremism is very common and popular in Pakistan. Pakistan is a religious country. It came into being in the name of Islam. But unfortunately, its religious ulemas and thinkers divided the country into many sects. The unity of the Muslims lies in pieces. The people of one sect hate strongly the people of other sect. Religious extremism means that one religious group considers its thinking correct and truthful. He thinks that the views held by it are final and conclusive. The religious views of the other groups are incorrect. He hates the other group and feels uncomfortable with it. This leads to hostility against the other group. In this way, every person adheres to his point of view and considers the other group wrong. Religious extremism is produced in the people by the following factors. 
1. The observers and thinkers consider that religious extremism is produced by our emotional and non-scientific thinking. They claim that we become too much subjective and too much involved in our own thinking. Our thinking attains personal colour. It is only scientific and objective thinking which can save us from the menace of religious extremism. 
2. Lack of modern knowledge breeds religious extremism. A large number of our people are uneducated. They are blind to the modern trends of knowledge in all fields of life. This thing generates a clash between ignorance and knowledge. The religious scholars, ulemas, and thinkers stick to their point of view. They try to force their views on the other by force. This produces and atmosphere of fear, suspicion and mistrust. 
3. Religious extremism takes place in those minds which are simple and credulous. They take every belief granted and do not analyze it. 
     Religious extremism has generated many evils. It has produced tyranny and violence. It has urged the religious extremists to resort to use force against those who do not agree with their views. This thing has built a strife between 'Shias and Sunnies'. These two religious groups have killed many people of the rival group. They have killed innocent people which include thinkers, scholars, doctors, teachers and other civilized members of society. Such type of religious extremism is very harmful to society and country. It can break up the integrity and unity of country. The unity of the country is at stake due to the presence of this form of religious extremism. 
     Religious extremism produces the following evils. 
1. It builds an atmosphere of distrust and fear. People begin to hate one another and suspect each others' intention. 
2. Religious extremism leads to the formation of religious groups and organizations. These groups organize themselves into armed groups and use force to intimidate and horrify the rival groups. In Pakistan such groups exist and they kill one another mercilessly. The use of force leads to enmity and bitter hostility.
3. An atmosphere of strife, tension and horror halts the economic progress of the county. The foreign investors stop investing their money in big projects. We can overcome religious extremism by taking the following steps.
(i) Modern education should be given to the students who study in Madrassas.
(ii) Religious extremism comes into action for lack of tolerance. The people should be taught to show tolerance to each other. The teachings of Islam should be propagated through electronic media about human dignity. Islam is a religious of peace and justice. A campaign should be started on electronic media which should teach people the real principals of Islam. 
QUESTION NO. 6
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Role of Women in Society".

ROLE OF WOMEN IN SOCIETY

OUTLINE
(i) In the past women did not enjoy many rights. They were expected to limit their activities to the kitchen.
(ii) Now women are conscious of their rights as citizens and consider themselves equal to men in every field of life.
(iii) They have proved their worth in every field of life. Now they cannot be kept as slaves in the house.
(iv) They are biologically different from men. Their main function is to produce and look after children.
(v) Our religion Islam is not against the education of women. It does not forbid them from taking part in the social activities of life.
ESSAY
     In the past, women were looked upon as slaves. Their main profession was to obey and entertain their husbands. As Ruskin puts it, " A true wife in her husband's house is his servant, it is in his heart that she is a queen". Upto the 19th century, it was thought that marriage and home life were the best outlets for a woman's energies. Thus a woman's activities were confined to the kitchen and the nursery. Towards the end of the 19th century, there came the revolt of women. 
     Literature of 19th century made them conscious of their duties and privileges. Education more than anything else was responsible for the emancipation of women. With education came the realization that she could do what man had done. She made a great demand for the right to vote. She succeeded in it. At present a number of women are members of the parliament. Today, women are working as typists in offices, telephone operators, teachers, doctors and what not. In Russia and Japan, they were trained as soldiers to serve in the Second World War. Even in Pakistan, we have women athletes, writers, leaders and administrators. They are leaving Purdah and taking an active part in the social life of the country.
     However, there is a group of thinkers who believe that women should not take part in the social and cultural activities of the country. They believe that man is for the sword and woman for the needle, man is to command and woman is to obey. Their judgment is based on prejudice and it is one sided. The real danger is that women are making a wrong use of their emancipation. They are trying to imitate man in everything. With the result, they are losing their essential womanhood. They are losing the sight of the fact that delicacy and modesty are two of their finest virtues. Without them, they would be simply apologies for women.
     Let us discuss the problem in the light of human psychology. Women are different from men in their bodily form and constitution. It is her sacred duty to produce children and look after them. Not only this but she has also to build a nation of morally sound people. She has to play the role of a teacher for her children. The Holy Prophet has said, "Paradise lies under the feet of mother". This shows that in Islam, a woman enjoys great status. Her rights are equal with men but her duties are different. Nepolean once said, "Give me good mothers and I shall give you a good nation". This means that morally good mothers build a nation of brave and strong people.
     Islam does not prohibit women to do jobs. Women can do any job provided they do it within the framework of Islam. Women can become doctors and nurses in hospitals. They can also become teachers, typists, clerks and receptionists. Women should do a job when they are actually in need of it. They should first of all look after their children and make them good citizens. However, in case of dire necessity, they can take part in social and cultural activities.
QUESTION NO. 7
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Importance of Mass Media".


IMPORTANCE OF MASS MEDIA

OUTLINE

(i) The mass media mean the sources of information and entertainment which are available to the public or masses of a country. They are divided into two kinds, print media and electronic media.
(ii) The mass media control our mind.
(iii) They are great source of building public opinion.
(iv) They educate the masses from the art of cooking to the philosophy of casting a vote.
(v) Internet is the latest addition to the mass media.
ESSAY
     The mass media mean the diversified sources of information and entertainment which are available to the public or masses of a country by mass communication. These media play an important role in building public opinion in a democratic country. They are divided into two kind; print media and electronic media.
     Print media include physical objects such as newspapers, books, pamphlets, comics and magazines etc whereas electronic media consist of radio, television and internet. Media has a great source of information and entertainment to all type of people. Nobody can deny their influence. Everybody looks to them to get information about their country, nation, religion and culture. They exercise a great influence on the workers, teachers, doctors, businessmen and all type of professionals. If media are stopped from yielding information to the public, the entire world would plunge into darkness and ignorance. They build our knowledge and strengthen our opinion about different things.
     The mass media control our mind. We believe whatever they propagate.We came to know about our life of villages, cities and towns through mass media.We come across the rise and fall in business, agriculture and industry through mass media. Let a minor incident happen in any part of the world, we come to know each detail of it through mass media. Mass media make a record of everything which takes place in the world. They do not hide anything from the public eye.
     The electronic media have governed and dominated the mind of the public in a very forceful manner. The radio and television bring to everyone the pleasures of music, songs, dances, dramas and films. They make us aware of the religious and cultural life of every country of the world. Even a lay man knows many things about the latest discoveries and inventions taking place in the world. It is because of electronic media that people were able to watch the murder of J.F. Kennedy and attack on Regon. They were also able to watch live coverage of the funeral of Diana, attack on World Trade Centre and bomb blast at different places. The mass media tell us about hurricanes, earthquakes and river floods in a graphic manner. They record for the masses the details of bomb blasts, suicide attacks and other acts of violence and aggression.
     The mass media are a great source of building public opinion. They build our knowledge and educated our sentiments. We form our own opinion about politics, religion and business under the influence of mass media. Even the man on the street has his opinion about the performance of the rulers. He can easily decide whom he should vote in the coming election. He can form reliable judgment about the business trends going on in the country.
     The mass media educate a domestic woman about cooking, medicine and elementary nursing of children. The children have informative and entertaining programme of their mental standard. They can build their knowledge about different branches of knowledge at a very early stage.
     Internet is the latest addition to the mass media. Through it, we are connected with the computer network of the world. Through it, we are connected with the activities of the world within no time. We are connected with the universities, offices, firms, business concerns and other nerve centres of life within no time. We can pay our bills, fees of admission and adjust our bank accounts through internet. Internet provides us jobs and suitable matches for marriage. It connects us with the latest discoveries in the field of medicine, surgery, wireless, industry and latest technology of every field within no time. We can plan our journey and devise a better route for the journey through the weather report forecast by mass media.


QUESTION NO. 8
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Pleasures of Childhood".


PLEASURES OF CHILDHOOD

OUTLINE
(i) Childhood is the earliest period of a person's life. In this period of life, the memory of child is very temporary.
(ii) Cares, troubles and worries are not the part of life in childhood.
(iii) A child receives great love and affection from different members of his family.
(iv) My childhood was marked with freedom of action. It was free from worries of life.
(v) The childhood memories are often praised by poets and thinkers.
ESSAY
     Childhood is the earliest period of a person's life. This is the period when memory is not very sharp and lasting. Up to the age of two to three, a child easily forgets happy or unhappy moments. He has only animal instincts to pursue. The emotional moments do not have strong impact on a child's mind. From that age onwards, his emotional senses start developing, while philosophical and spiritual selves rest need rest of the life to be developed.
     As a child grows up, he feels more and more attached with his childhood because the overgrowing responsibilities, overpowering demands of life and rapid awakening of the world around force him to be nostalgic about childhood. The oppressing demands of life force him to take refuge in the dim, happy and carefree memories of childhood, when life was smooth sailing without any worries, anxieties or work. Life was nothing more than eat and be merry. The unforgettable charm of childhood keeps coming back to make him happy and move forward in life.
     This is the reason that all the grown up claim that childhood is the best part of life. No doubt, it is the golden period of life because cares, worries and troubles are not part of this period. A child has parents to serve him and pamper him. All the family is ready to shower him with blessings of love. So the kindness of parents, love of brothers and sisters, merry games and fun with friends at school, hide and seek in the backyard, old dear home, chocolates and cakes, parties and family gatherings, everything try to come back and make them smile. So comparison between past and present would make them wish that they could be children again.
     Similar is the case with me. When I recall the days of my childhood, I feel happy and excited to remember the golden period of my life. At that time, I was carefree, high spirited and easily delighted with life. I used to wander like a free soul in the open fields enjoying the natural beauty in the pastures. I would climb trees, run like deer across the pastures, ride a pony and swim in shallow ponds. There was no burden of homework or anxiety over unfinished business. Everyday was a new day to discover and enjoy the small delight of life. Life was beautiful, pure, innocent and without any feeling of corruption around.
    My childhood is full of incidents which still have the power to make me smile and relax. Whenever I see a juggler with monkeys, I am reminded of my childhood. I used to love the tricks of monkey by which he tried to attract the attention of his beloved. He was always successful in the end and two of them would jump upward and backward happily. I was very happy to see them happy together.
     I still remember the hot summer noons, when my cousins and I used to catch sparrows. The immense pleasures of catching, caging and then setting the sparrows free would give me a feeling of power and domination over those helpless tiny creatures. Then generous act of freeing them would fill my heart with childish pride.
     The childhood memories have often been praised by poets and writers. The poetry of Wordsworth is full of verses which had been written in memory and praise of childhood. Whenever Wordsworth recalled his childhood, he was filled with happy, carefree and pleasing memories which had the power to make him happy in later years of life.
    The memory of my childhood still has power over my grown up mind. Sometimes I do wish that golden period of my life come back, but I know that it is impossible. I cannot enjoy that period again. So I cherish the happy memory of my childhood. 
     


QUESTION NO. 9
Write an essay, with outline, of 300-350 words on the topic "Features of a Pakistani Wedding".


FEATURES OF A PAKISTANI WEEDING

OUTLINE
(i) Marriage in Pakistan is a legal union between a man and a woman.
(ii) An engagement is a formal ceremony held before the marriage. 
(iii) Mehndi, the Henna ceremony, or the Rasm-e-henna ceremony, typically takes place one or two days prior to the main wedding day.
(iv) Baraat is the procession of the family, relatives, and friends of the groom and they accompany the groom to the bride’s home or marriage hall for the official wedding ceremony.
(v) Walima is the final day of the wedding. This is traditionally organised by the groom and his family.
ESSAY
    Marriage in Pakistan is a legal union between a man and a woman. Culturally, it is not only a link between the husband and wife, but also an alliance between their respective families. Because about 97% of Pakistan's population is Muslim, the Islamic law is usually observed. Arranged marriages have been an integral part of Pakistani society for years and are still prevalent. Marriages are often arranged within the family or within the same community or ethnicity. The wedding customs and celebrations differ significantly depending on the geographical location as well as the families involved. However, a typical Pakistani wedding has at least three main customs involving the Henna ceremony (Rasm-e-Henna), the vows or the Nikah which is a part of the actual wedding or Shaadi ceremony, and a subsequent Walima offered by the groom's family.
     A proposal party goes to the bride's house, where the groom's parents and family elders formally ask the bride's parents for her hand in marriage. When the wedding proposal is accepted, a day is usually fixed for the engagement ceremony. Engagement is usually a small ceremony that takes place in the presence of a few close members of would-be bride's and groom’s families. Rings and other items of jewelry among affluent families are exchanged between the would-be bride and groom. Traditionally, the bride and the groom were not seated together, and the rings are placed on the bride's finger by the groom's mother or sister, and vice versa. In recent years, however, segregated functions have become a rarity and rings are usually exchanged between the couple. Prayer and blessings for the couple are then recited, and the wedding date is decided.
      Traditionally, many days or even weeks before the actual wedding day, women gather in the house of the bride at night to sing and dance while accompanied by percussion instruments. This is called the Dholki or Dholak celebration. Today, this ceremony has also been reduced to a single night of singing and is often combined with Mehndi or Henna ceremony.  Mehndi, the Henna ceremony, or the Rasm-e-henna ceremony, typically takes place one or two days prior to the main wedding day. The event is traditionally held separately for the bride and the groom. The henna is symbolically placed on the couple's hands. The groom's friends and family bring along sweets and henna for the bride, and the bride's family does the same for the groom. In the bride's ceremony, the groom normally does not participate, and similarly on the groom's event, the bride stays at home. Female guests are sometimes offered mehndi at the host's discretion. Traditionally, since there were separate functions for both the bride and the groom, the groom's function was called 'Tael' (oil) where female guests put some oil into the groom's hair. With the ceremony now held simultaneously for both the groom and the bride, the use of the  term 'tael' has diminished greatly. In some cases, the entire ceremony is instead referred to as "Tael Mehndi" ceremony.
     After the Tael Mehndi, the main wedding ceremony takes place. A procession of the family, relatives, and friends of the groom called Barat go to the bride’s home or marriage hall for the official wedding ceremony. The groom makes his way to the bride's home or the marriage hall on a richly decked horse or car and the “barat” follows in different vehicles. Usually they are also accompanied by a band playing wedding songs. The groom is given a warm welcome by the bride’s family with flower garlands and rose petals thrown upon the procession by the bride's sisters, cousins and friends. If the couple are Muslim, a Nikkah is performed.
After the Nikkah, a dinner is served which consists of several dishes with meat featuring heavily in the meal. Finally, the Rukhsati takes place, when the groom and his family leave together with the bride. 
    Walima is the final day of the wedding held by the couple as they host their first dinner as husband and wife. This is traditionally organised by the groom and/or his family thus, without his parents, this ritual normally cannot be performed. So to make Walima valid, the parents' blessing and presence is the most important factor. The groom's family, specifically his parents, invite all of the bride's family and their guests to their home for a feast. More commonly nowadays, this is held in a marriage hall or hotel instead. The Walima is typically the most festive event of the wedding ceremony and intends to publicize the marriage. The bride wears a heavily decorated dress with gold jewellery provided by the groom's family. The groom normally opts for a formal Western suit or tuxedo. It is at this ceremony that they are formally and publicly show cased as a married couple. After the walima ceremony, the married couple usually go to honeymoon.
QUESTION NO.  10
Write a general essay, with outline, of 300-350 words that covers the following topics;
(i)  Energy Crisis
(ii) Unemployment
(iii) Terrorism
(iv) Drug Addiction
(v) Black Marketing
(vi) Corruption
(vii) Inflation - Rising Prices
(viii) Over-Population
(ix) Environmental Pollution
(x) Smuggling
(xi) Mass Illiteracy
(xii) Drug Trafficking 
(xiii) Sectarianism
(xiv) Economic Crisis
(xv) Beggary
(xvi) Bribery
(xvii) Nepotism
(xviii) Tax Evasion
(xix) Violence
(xx) Poverty
(xxi) Political Instability 
(xxii) Lawlessness
(xxiii) Social and Economic Crisis
(xxiv) Social and Economical Problems
(xxv) Injustice and Inequality

------------------------------

OUTLINE
(i) Introduction
(ii) Evil impacts and complications of __________.
(iii) It breeds social, economical, political and moral problems
(iv) Causes of __________.
(v) Remedies of __________.
(vi) Conclusion
ESSAY
     __________ is a major problem in most backward and developing countries. It indicates our moral, social and religious downfall. It is a matter of great shame that in spite of becoming a nuclear power, we are far behind other nations in the way of character and faith. There are many factors which are responsible for __________. Illiteracy, poverty and false ideas of society are the major causes of this social evil. However, a close analysis reveals that craze for wealth and power is the base of all kind of __________. People have become greedy and selfish. They do not know the virtues of love, sympathy and sacrifice.
      __________ has become one of the most important problem of all the world especially of the third world countries like Pakistan. It is full of danger of evil impacts. It destabilizes and demoralizes nations and gives birth to depression and frustration in the society and state. It creates and spreads the feelings of uncertainty, instability and insecurity among the masses. If it creeps in a society, it eats into its vitals and soon roots out its inner strength. It destroys its outer splendor, economic prosperity, social peace and national unity. Consequently, a nation's good image is spoiled in all over the world. Lawlessness becomes order of the day due to poverty, corruption, violence, indiscipline and mass illiteracy. It it is not effectively, properly and promptly checked, the entire judicial, moral and economic fabric of a nation will be collapsed.
     ___________ is highly dangerous and devastating for a country like Pakistan that has a weak economy and political instability. If the evil of __________ is not nipped in the bud, it may spread like a bush fire and engulf the whole nation or region like and epidemic. _________ badly shatters people's faith in institution and supremacy of the constitution. It deprives masses from mental, physical, spiritual, moral and economic health. It also paves way for bloody revolutions and military take-overs.
     The main causes of __________ are illiteracy, poverty, economic policies of government and man's burning desire to become rich and bigwig over night. __________ creates economic pressure, social and economic injustice. Feudalism, capitalism and uneven distribution of wealth and opportunities, non-availability of basic necessities and fundamental rights also spread __________. Non-availability of education, health care and jobs also paves the way to spread __________. External factors like agencies of neighbouring  states like India also play a vital role in spreading __________ in Pakistan in order to destabilize it.
     In the end we can say that our officers as well as the scholars, educationists, political parties, NGO's and national mass media should take necessary steps to eradicated this wicked problem for the best national and human interest. Only then we can raise our heads as a free and dignified nation.
QUESTION NO. 11
(a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Space travel is by far the most expensive type of exploration ever undertaken by man. The vast expenditure of money and human effort now being devoted to projects of putting man into space might well be applied to ends more practically useful and more conducive to human happiness. It is a strange world in which tens of millions of pounds are spent to give one man a ride round the earth at thousands of miles an hour, while beneath him in his orbit live millions for whom life is a daily struggle to win a few coins to buy their bread and butter. The money and effort that go into the development and construction of a single type of space-rocket would more than suffice to rid several countries of such scourge as malaria or typhoid fever, to name only two of diseases that medical science has conquered but which still persist in the world simply because not enough money and effort are devoted to their eradication. Why should the richer countries of the world be pouring their resources into space when poverty and disease on the earth are crying out for relief? One could give a cynical answer to this question and assert that man's expensive adventures into space are merely the by-products of the struggle between great powers for prestige and possible military advantage. 
QUESTIONS
(i) Why is it a strange world?
Ans. It is a strange world because it does not do what it should do. It is wasting a lot of money and effort on space exploration while millions of people on the earth are starving due to lack of money and concern. 
(ii) Why do malaria  and typhoid still exist in the world? 
Ans. Malaria and typhoid still exist in the world because
(a) Scientists put more efforts on space exploration than on these diseases. 
(b) The money needed to eradicate these diseases is wasted on space exploration. 
(iii) Why is man pouring his resources into space?
 Ans. Man is pouring his resources into space because 
(a) He wants to gain prestige or good reputation in the world. 
(b) He hopes to get possible military and strategic advantages against others.
(iv) Explain the meanings of the following words:
(a) Scourge     (b) Eradication
Ans. (a) Scourge means a source of widespread dreadful affliction and devastation such as that caused by pestilence or war.
(b) Eradication means the complete destruction or extermination of every trace of something.

(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage. 
Ans. Suitable Title
Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Exploration
(vi) Make a summary of the passage. 
Ans. Summary
     Space travel is the most expensive type of exploration. It is a strange world. It is wasting a lot of money and effort on space exploration while millions of people on the earth are starving due to lack of money and concern. Poverty and diseases still exist in the world because the efforts and money needed to eradicate them is wasted on space exploration. Except prestige and military advantage, there is no other benefit of space exploration.(word: 77)

(b) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Fortunately, however, the growth of industrialism has coincided in the west with the growth of democracy. It is possible now, if the population of the world does not increase too fast, for one man's labour to produce much more than is needed to provide a bare subsistence for himself and his family. Given an intelligent democracy not misled by some dogmatic creed, this possibility will be used to raise the standard of life. It has been so used to a limited extent, in Britain and America, and would have been so used more effectively but for war. Its use in raising the standard of life has depended mainly upon three things; democracy, trade unionism, and birth control. All three, of course, have incurred hostility from the rich. If these three things can be extended to the rest of the world as it becomes industrialized, and if the danger of great wars can be eliminated, poverty can be abolished throughout the whole world, and excessive hours of labour will no longer be necessary anywhere. But without these three things industrialism will create a regime like that in which the Pharaohs build the pyramids. In particular, if the world population continues to increase at the present rate, the abolition if poverty and excessive work will be totally impossible. 
QUESTIONS
(i)  What connection does the writer show between industrialism and democracy?
Ans. The writer shows a strong connection between industrialism and democracy. For example he says,
(a) The growth of industrialism coincides with the growth of democracy. 
(b) Without democracy, industrialism will create a regime in which the Pharaohs build the pyramids.
(ii) How can the standard of life be raised?
Ans. The standard of life can be raised with the help of following things;
(a) Intelligent democracy
(b) Trade unionism
(c) Birth control
(iii) How can poverty be abolished?
Ans. Poverty can be abolished by adopting the following measures;
(a) Elimination of war
(b) Birth control
(iv) What will be the impact of increase in population at the present rate?
Ans. If the population continues to increase at the present rate then the following things will become impossible;
(a) Abolition of poverty
(b) End of excessive hours of labour
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage. 
Ans. Suitable Title
Industrialism and Democracy
(vi) Make a precis of the passage.
Ans. Precis
     The western countries are making progress in the field of industry with the growth of democracy. An intelligent democracy can be used to raise the standard of life. The standard of life is dependent upon three things; democracy, trade unionism and birth control. With the help of these three things, poverty and excessive hours of labour can also be abolished. (words: 60)

QUESTION NO. 12
(a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Great progress has been made by America in the field of mechanization. It is spending lavishly on labour-saving machines. Efficient organization if highly mechanized system has resulted in maximum productivity in America. With mass production, the amenities of life are available to almost every citizen. On the contrary, Europe subordinates the use of machines to human happiness and welfare. It encourages man's reliance on his own faculties and realizes the dangers inherent in the American scheme. However, great the advantages of mechanization, it crushes the creative faculty of man and makes a machine out of him. His individual liberty and personality suffer an irretrievable loss. In his moments of leisure the worker finds it difficult to turn his hands to creative work because the machine-made goods do not inspire him in the direction of refinement. These goods also lose their fascination because mass production has given a set back to the individuality of the articles produced. The Europeans, therefore, contend that it is better to sacrifice a few material comforts that crush the aesthetic and spiritual urge in the individual which large scale mechanization is doing in America. 
QUESTIONS
(i) What is the result of progress in the field of mechanization in America?
Ans. The progress in the field of mechanization in America has resulted in maximum productivity of goods. In other words, mass production or large scale production is the result of mechanization in America. 
(ii) How has it affected America?
Ans. Apparently,  it has positive effects on citizens of America. With mass production, the amenities of life are available to almost every citizens and they are enjoying luxurious lives.
(iii) What is the case in Europe?
Ans. Europeans are quite opposite to Americans. For example;
(a)  They usually rely on their own faculties. 
(b) They consider mechanization a danger to their creative faculty, individuality, aesthetic and spiritual urge.
(iv) Why do Europeans sacrifice a few material comforts?
Ans. Europeans sacrifice a few material comforts because;
(a) They want to encourage man's reliance on his own faculties. 
(b) They wish to keep alive the aesthetic and spiritual urge in the individual. 
(v) Make a suitable title of the passage.
Ans. Suitable Title
Mechanization in America and Europe 
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage. 
Ans. Precis
     America has made great progress in the field of mechanization by spending abundantly in this field. As a result of maximum productivity, it has succeeded in providing her people a luxurious life. However, Europeans think that machines cause to destroy the creative faculty and individuality of man. They are ready to sacrifice a few material comforts because they do not want to crush the aesthetic and spiritual urge in the individual. (words: 71)  

(b) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.

     In universities in the West, a large part of teacher's time is spent on tutorial work. By a tutorial we mean a regular weekly meeting of a teacher and small group of students. A tutorial is not an occasion for a lecture by a  teacher nor it is an informal conversation piece. It is, in fact, an opportunity for a teacher to get to know his students. It is further a means to discover their potential abilities, stimulate them by discussion, test their response to what they have read, and to give them individual advice on their studies. A tutorial should help a student to clarify his mind by the exchange of ideas, and should send him back to his books with a new awareness and a new interest. It should encourage him to think for himself and give him practice in formulating and expressing opinions. The usual form is that the students read original essays in turn and these are discussed, analyzed and evaluated by the group as a whole under the guidance of the teacher. A further advantage of the tutorial is that it enables the teacher to become intimately acquainted with his students, both as individual as a scholar. 
QUESTIONS
(i) What does the writer mean by a tutorial?
Ans. According to the writer, a tutorial means a regular weekly meeting of a teacher and small group of students. It is not an occasion for a lecture by a  teacher nor it is an informal conversation piece. It is, in fact, an opportunity for a teacher to get to know his students.
(ii) Why do the teacher of  the Western Universities spend his much time on tutorial work?
Ans. The teacher of the Western Universities spends his much time on tutorial work because it helps him to know about the "whole child" and he can give the students individual advice on their studies. 
(iii) What do the students gain by tutorial work?
Ans.  A tutorial  helps a student to clarify his mind by the exchange of ideas, and  send him back to his books with a new awareness and a new interest. It encourages him to think for himself and give him practice in formulating and expressing opinions.
(iv) Should we adopt this system in our country? If yes why?
Ans. Yes, we should adopt this system in our country. A tutorial is a great help for the students to improve their ideas, thoughts and flourish in studies. 
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
Suitable Title
Importance of Tutorial
(vi) Make a precis of the passage.   
Precis
     In western universities a lot of tutorial work is done. A tutorial is a meeting of a teacher and small group of students. It is an opportunity for a teacher to get to know his students. It helps a student to clarify his mind by the exchange of ideas, and sends him back to his books with a new awareness and a new interest. It encourages him to think for himself and give him practice in formulating and expressing opinions. It also enables the teacher to become intimately acquainted with his students. 

QUESTION NO. 13
(a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Very few students have really any clear idea of what science mean. The teaching of science in schools tend to obscure the meaning of science. When pupils at school work for a pass in science subject, they regard it their main business to learn a large number of facts and a smaller number of principles and theories. Now all this is good in its way. A scientist must have a certain number of facts, principles and theories at his finger tips. But science would cease to be science if scientists merely worked from fixed sets of facts and theories. The essence of science is the gathering of new facts and the establishment of new theories. Science has advanced rapidly in recent history because scientists have been greedy for new knowledge, and because they have been so ready to disbelieve in text books of their youth. It is, therefore, most important to give our young students of science an awareness of skepticism and open-mindedness that is part of the very soul of science. Let them not think that any branch of science is a subject that one can sit down and learn. Let them realize that science is essentially a creative activity. 
QUESTIONS
(i) What is the essence of science?
Ans. The essence of science is
(a) Gathering of new facts
(b) Establishment of new theories
(ii) When does science cease to be science?
Ans. Science ceases to be science when
(a) Pupils work for a pass in a science subject
(b) They learn a large number of facts and smaller number of principles and theories. 
(iii) What are the two causes of the advancement of science?
Ans. The two major causes of the advancement of science are;
(a) Scientists have been greedy for new knowledge.
(b) They have been so ready to disbelieve in text books of their youth.
(iv) What should we teach to our students of science?
Ans. We should teach two major things to our students of science.
(a) Awareness of skepticism
(b) Open-mindedness
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
Ans. Suitable Title
Teaching of Science as A Creative Activity
(vi) Make a precis of the passage. 
Precis
      The essence of science is gathering of new facts and establishment of new theories. Pupils work for a pass in a science subject. They learn a  large number of facts and smaller number of principles and theories. The two major causes of the advancement of science are that scientists have been greedy for new knowledge and have been so ready to disbelieve in text books of their youth. We should teach our students an awareness of skepticism and open-mindedness. (Words: 79)

(b) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Whether the subject should be taught in English in our educational institutions or through the medium of our other tongue is one of the most important problems of the present day. There are quite a few points to be  considered in this connection. Those who oppose the introduction of English as a medium of instruction think that the subjects taught in English are not properly understood by the students. When they are not able to understand a point properly, they are evidently unable to express it properly. When they are compelled to write the answers in English, they feel pained. Hence they develop a sort of inferiority complex. This thing mars the growth of intellectual power and as a result their personality remains undeveloped. Thus they prove a complete failure in their lives. But that is not a sensible way of thinking. As a matter of fact, it is not simply the medium of instruction that counts in the educational affairs. There are some other factors as well to be taken into consideration of mind etc. Moreover, Urdu is still in a stage of infancy. It is impossible for it to compete with English and become mature enough to absorb suitable equivalents of technical terms before it is introduced as a medium of instruction. The change, of course, must be there, but it must be very gradual one. 
QUESTIONS
(i) What do the people against English say?
Ans.  The people who oppose English say that the subjects taught in English are not properly understood by the students. This thing mars the growth of intellectual power and as a result their personality remains undeveloped.
(ii) What is the greatest difficulty in changing over to Urdu?
Ans. Urdu is still in a stage of infancy. It is impossible for it to compete with English and become mature enough to absorb suitable equivalents of technical terms before it is introduced as a medium of instruction.
(iii) Till when should we wait for this change-over?
Ans. We should wait for this change till Urdu become mature enough to absorb suitable equivalents of technical terms. 
(iv) What sort of change does the writer suggest?
Ans. The writer suggests a gradual change. We should be patient and develop Urdu gradually to compete with English vocabulary. 
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage. 
Suitable Title
Udru and English As Medium of Instruction
(vi) Make a precis of the passage. 
Precis
     Whether Urdu or English should be a medium of instruction is a jigsaw puzzle. Some people favour it while the others oppose. The opponents think that the subjects taught in English are not properly understood by the students. This thing mars the growth of intellectual power of students. However, medium of cannot be blamed solely. Urdu cannot be applied as a medium of instruction because it has not substitutes for scientific and business terms of English. We would have to wait till Urdu matures enough to compete with English.

QUESTION NO. 14
(a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Mankind has undoubtedly progressed since medieval time. The earliest men lived like brutes. Individuals fought among themselves and strong destroyed the weak, for that is the law of jungle --- the law of irrational life. But man was not an animal. He possessed rational faculties. These faculties gradually developed and appeared in his actions, and man gave up the laws of jungle and evolved his own rational law. Men saw that the law of physical strength was not applicable to their lives. They realized that they have souls and the strength of a being with a soul can consist in a variety of capabilities other than the power to hack and hew and tear and bite. For instance, a man can be strong in reasoning tools, or in controlling the actions of other rational beings by the power of song and speech. Thus men realized that they should not be fighting among themselves but should be working together and giving one another opportunities to develop their respective strength. This was the first step in man's progress. By this means men gained such control over the force of nature and made each other so much wiser and more comfortable that they were convinced that they were the best creation of God. 
QUESTIONS
(i) How did the earliest men live?
Ans. The earliest men lived like brutes. They followed the law of jungle. Individuals fought among themselves  and strong destroyed the weak. 
(ii) What is the law of jungle?
Ans. The law of jungle means 'might is right'. The strong destroyed the weak. The man who can dominate and establish his power over his fellow beings may be the king of that society. According to this law the strong is the sole powerful. 
(iii) What did men learn to do when his reason developed?
Ans. When reason developed, the mind of man got illuminated. He came to know that he should make good relations with other fellow beings of the society. 
(iv) How were men convinced that they were the best creation of God?
Ans. When reason developed, man realized that he has soul and the strength of a being. He gained such control over the force of nature and made each other so much wiser and more comfortable that they were convinced that they were the best creation of God.
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage. 
Suitable Title
Evolution of Human Faculties
(vi) Make a precis of the passage. 
Precis
     On the basis of his rational faculties, mankind developed from irrational brutal life of medieval times to a cultured man. When his reason developed, it illuminated his mind which made him to realize  the value of friendship against enmity. In this way he proved himself to be the best creation of God.  
  
(b) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Success in the next electoral contest will come only to those political parties that are able to win the support of the people not happy with their current economic situation. A vast majority -- more than 95 per cent -- will vote with no assurance that their welfare is the main concern of the parties seeking their support. This is what makes politics so volatile in the country as it marches towards yet another election. There is a lot at stake in the coming election for the political parties preparing to contest and the leaders who manage them. To win the support of the discontented, the parties and their leaders will need to offer their well-developed programmes aimed at improving the welfare of the citizens. It is my belief that only those parties will succeed in March who have developed programmes to redress some of the problems created by the model pursued over the last five years. That model was focused on developing the principal cities of the country by promoting the sectors that provided a limited amount of employment and yielded in comes to a very small proportion of the population. This model will need to be changed significantly to win the political backing of the deprived and disadvantaged. But that can only happen if the people are presented with programmes in which they can place some trust. 
QUESTIONS
(i) Who will win the next elections?
Ans. The political party who wins the support of those people who are not satisfied with their present economic condition, will win in the next elections. 
(ii) What does it make politics so volatile in the country?
Ans. People are not sure whether the party seeking their support concerns their welfare as main issue or not. This makes politics so volatile in the country. 
(iii) How can the support of the discontented be won?
Ans. The support of the discontented can be won by offering such programmes as aim at the improvement of citizens' welfare. This factor renders the situation to an unpredictable metamorphosis.  
(iv) How can the trust of the people be won?
Ans. The trust of the people can be won by launching practical programmes.  
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage. 
Suitable Title
Elections and Welfare of People
(vi) Make a precis of the passage. 
Precis
    Only those political parties will win in the coming elections who win the support of people dissatisfied with their present economic condition. Most people cast their votes without being sure that the party will be fit for them. Support of masses can be won by offering programmes of social development. Those parties will win the elections that have a sound plan to eradicate problems created by the set-up used for the last five years. This set-up needs to be changed be benefit  the disappointed people.


QUESTION NO. 15
(a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Education, in general is enigmatic in Pakistan. It is plagued with falling standards, loss of direction, and insensitivity on the part of governments. Misguided and chaotic as it is, education in Pakistan is misunderstood as restricted to passing examinations or obtaining degrees. It is totally deprived of career planning and skill development. And above all it fails to imbibe in our students, human values which are basic to our Islamic society. The Oxford dictionary defines education as awakening and development of one's character and mental powers. The computerized CD, The World Book, states that education is the process by which people acquire knowledge, skills, habits, values and attitudes. The word education is also used to describe the results of the educational process. Education should help people become useful members of society. It should also help them develop an appreciation of the cultural heritage and teach them to live more satisfying lives. The most common way to get education is to attend school, but much education also takes place outside the classroom. Throughout  history of eduction is not as old as humanity, its demands for the present world are enormous and pressurizing. The world has expanded itself to an era of phenomenal growth and development with multiplying technology. The world today clearly demands specialization and realization of quality education. Simply speaking, teaching two plus two makes four is education, but application of four is all spheres of life is its quality. 
QUESTIONS
(i) From which defects does education in Pakistan suffer?
Ans. Education in Pakistan suffers from defects like falling academic standards, loss of direction, and insensitivity on the part of government. 
(ii) How can do Pakistanis think education is?
Ans. Pakistanis generally think that education is misguided and chaotic. It is totally deprived of career planning and skill development. It fails to imbibe in our students human values which are basic to our Islamic society. 
(iii) How is general education different from quality education?
Ans. General education is different from quality education in the sense that teaching two plus two makes four means general education. However, application of four in all spheres of life means quality eduction. Quality education helps people become useful members of society. 
(iv) Give in your own words the definition of education. 
Ans.  The process by which society transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another is called education.
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
Suitable Title 
Education in Pakistan
(vi) Make a precis of the passage. 
Precis
     Education in Pakistan suffers from defects like falling academic standards, loss of direction, and insensitivity on the part of government. Pakistanis generally think that education is misguided and chaotic. It is totally deprived of career planning and skill development. It fails to imbibe in our students human values which are basic to our Islamic society. General education is different from quality education in the sense that teaching two plus two makes four means general education. However, application of four in all spheres of life means quality eduction. Quality education helps people become useful members of society. 

(b) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     A person who is aware of his duties and rights in his society is a good citizen. He knows that he is a member of a group with which he is associated by a thousand and one ties. He realizes that he should live in harmony with other members of society. 
     Man cannot live without a society. He cannot live alone. He must live with his fellow human beings. But living in a society means co-operaion with other members of that society. When you live in society, you have to live as others live. You have to accept the conditions and traditions that a society prescribes for its members. These conditions and standards of behaviour are for the common good and welfare of the society and individuals. Society gives you some rights and some duties. 
     A good citizen does his best to do his duty to the society. He always keeps in vies the interests of his society and state. He lives a clean and honest life. He keeps away from such activities that may harm the interests of his fellow citizens. 
     A good citizen is aware of the fact that he is indebted to his society in many ways. He knows that the labour and work of countless persons have enriched his life. He life, to a very great extent, depends on others. He has received much in material and spiritual benefits from others. It is only just and right that he should pay his debts. 
     How does a good citizen pay his debts to the society? By living useful and fruitful life, he lives not for himself alone but he lives for others. He pays his taxes. He takes keen interest in the affairs of his state. He does not live in isolation. He is not selfish. He is tolerant and kind and virtuous. 
QUESTIONS
(i) Who is a good citizen?
Ans. A person who is aware of his duties and rights in his society is a good citizen. A good citizen live in harmony with other members of his society. 
(ii) Why is society formed?
Ans. Man is a social animal. He cannot live alone. He has to live with his fellow human beings. When men live together and co-operate with one another, a society is formed. 
(iii) What are the duties of a good citizen? 
Ans. There are many duties of a good citizen. For example
(a) A good citizen should pay his debts to the society. 
(b) He should not live for himself but also for other. 
(c) He should pay his taxes and take keen interest in the affairs of his state. 
(iv) Give other words for;
(a) Harmony     (b) Prescribe     (c) Indebted     (d) Isolation
Ans. (a) Harmony means an  agreement in feeling or opinion.
(b) Prescribe means to set down as a rule or guide.
(c) Indebted means morally, socially, or legally obligated to another.
(d) Isolation means a state of separation between persons or groups.

(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
Suitable Title
Qualities and Duties of a Good Citizen
(vi) Make a precis of the passage. 
Precis
     A good citizen is aware of his duties and rights in his society. He lives in harmony with other members of the society. He follows the rules and traditions of the society. He respects others because he knows the importance of other people in the society. A good citizen not only lives for himself but also for others. He pays his taxes and takes interest in state affairs. He is not selfish but tolerant, kind and virtuous. 
QUESTION NO. 16
(a) Correct the following sentences. (Noun)
(i) I need a ten rupees note. 
 I need a ten rupee note.
(ii) He ran three hundred meters race. 
 He ran three hundred meter race.
(iii) He has ten heads of cattle. 
 He has ten head of cattle.
(iv) He has given up his study. 
 He has given up his studies.
(v) I took pain in my work. 
 I took pains in my work.
(vi) He gave order to release him.
 He gave orders to release him.
(vii) He gave me many advices. 
 He gave me many pieces of advice.
(viii) I have many works to do. 
 I have many pieces of work to do.
(ix) The chair's leg is broken. 
 The leg of chair is broken.
(x) What is this book's price?
 What is the price of this book?
(b) Correct the following sentences. (Pronoun)
(i) Let Sabiha and I go there.
Let Sabiha and me go there.
(ii) One should take care of his health.
One should take care of one's health.
(iii) Everyone raised their hands.
Everyone raised his hands.
(iv) Saleema is the woman which gave me courage to work.
Saleema is the woman who gave me courage to work.
(v) He is the student who I think deserves praise.
He is the student whom I think deserves praise.
(vi) The boy who was promoted, he was my brother.
The boy who was promoted was my brother.
(vii) He availed of the opportunity.
He availed himself of the opportunity.
(viii) We enjoyed at the concert.
We enjoyed ourselves at the concert.
(ix) These two boys hate one another.
These two boys hate each other.
(x) Little children love each other.
Little children love one another.
(c) Correct the following sentences. (Verb)
(i) The wages of sin are hell.
The wages of sin is hell.
(ii) Ten miles are a long distance.
Ten miles is a long distance.
(iii) My brother's only help were his friends.
My brother's only help was his friends.
(iv) His friend and benefactor have left the room.
His friend and benefactor has left the room.
(v) They found that the ship is leaking.
They found that the ship was leaking.
(vi) I request you not to cut jokes in the class.
I request you not to make jokes in the class.
(vii) He made three goals in the last match.
He scored three goals in the last match.
(viii) He is reading in the medical college.
He is studying in the medical college.
(ix) He has come yesterday.
He came yesterday.
(x) Why he wrote that foolish letter?
Why did he write that foolish letter?
(d) Correct the following sentences. (Article)
(i) He is M.A. while his friend is B.A.
He is an M.A. while his friend is a B.A.
(ii) In Lahore we stayed at hotel.
In Lahore we stayed at a hotel.
(iii) Faisalabad is Manchester of Pakistan.
Faisalabad is the Manchester of Pakistan.
(iv) The gold is more costly than the silver.
Gold is more costly than silver.
(v) Rose is the sweetest of all flowers.
The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.
(vi) The man is selfish by nature.
Man is selfish by nature.
(vii) I have headache.
I have a headache.
(viii) I am stronger of the two.
I am the stronger of the two.
(ix) Higher we go, cooler it is.
The higher we go, the cooler it is.
(x) This is a best book.
This is the best book.
  
QUESTION NO. 17
(a) Correct the following sentences. (Adjective)
(i) He is a famous gambler.
He is a notorious gambler.
(ii) We met at the house of a mutual friend to make peace.
We met at the house of a common friend to make peace.
(iii) He is a coward person.
He is a cowardly person.
(iv) We visited many worth-seeing places.
We visited many places worth-seeing.
(v) She is more clever than he.
She is clever than he.
(vi) Lahore is larger than any city in the Punjab.
Lahore is larger than any other city in the Punjab.
(vii) Of the two routes, this is the shortest.
Of the two routes, this is shorter.
(viii) Mumtaz is the most unique teacher.
Mumtaz is a unique teacher.
(ix) He enjoys the most worldwide reputation.
He enjoys worldwide reputation.
(x) It is much hot today.
It is very hot today.
(b) Correct the following sentences. (Adverb)
(i) He goes there never.
He never goes there.
(ii) He comes here seldom.
He seldom comes here.
(iii) He faced bravely the enemy.
He bravely faced the enemy.
(iv) Atif sings good.
Atif sings well.
(v) He died two months before.
He died two months ago.
(vi) The strawberry shortcake tastes deliciously.
The strawberry shortcake tastes delicious.
(vii) The rotten eggs smell badly.
The rotten eggs smell bad.
(viii) He is hardly hit by the bank's failure.
He is hard hit by the bank's failure.
(ix) I seldom or ever take medicine.
I never take medicine.
(x) It is much interesting book.
It is very interesting book.
(c) Correct the following sentences. (Preposition)
(i) The lion attacked at him.
The lion attacked him.
(ii) We reached at the platform soon after the train left.
We reached the platform soon after the train left.
(iii) The patient has been operated.
The patient has been operated upon.
(iv) Look this word in the dictionary.
Look up this word in the dictionary.
(v) I shot the bear but missed.
I shot at the bear but missed. 
(vi) I cannot pull on my work.
I cannot pull on with my work.
(vii) It is half past five in my watch.
It is half past five by my watch.
(viii) She is angry on me.
She is angry with me.
(ix) He wrote with red ink.
He wrote in red ink.
(x) I have not seen you since a long time.
I have not seen you for a long time.
(d) Correct the following sentences. (Conjunction) 
(i) If you do not come, then I shall not help you.
If you do not come, I shall not help you.
(ii) If he is poor, then I will help him.
If he is poor, I will help him.
(iii) Although he is old, but he is strong.
Although he is old, yet he is strong.
(iv) Hardly had we set out than the bad weather began.
Hardly had we set out when the bad weather began.
(v) Scarcely had he gone than a policeman knocked at the door.
Scarcely had he gone when a policeman knocked at the door.
(vi) No sooner he left than the storm broke.
No sooner he left when the storm broke.
(vii) Unless you don't work hard, you cannot secure good marks.
Unless you work hard, you cannot secure good marks.
(viii) Neither he comes, nor he writes.
Neither he comes, nor writes.
(ix) He wears like his friend does.
He wears as his friend does.
(x) He cried as if he was mad.
He cried as if he were mad.

QUESTION NO. 18
(a) Use the following idioms in your own sentences.
(i) Beggar description 
The beauty of Taj Mahal beggars description.
(ii) Carry weight
 Your arguments do not carry weight in this matter.
(iii) Compare notes
We met after the examination to compare notes how well we had done.
(iv) Fall flat
My attempt at humor fell flat and now the girl does not like me.
(v) Follow suit
Ali went to word for an bank, and Aslam followed suit. Now they are both head cashiers.
(vi) Hold water
Your arguments do not hold water in this matter.
(vii) Hush money
The crooks paid police hush money to keep their whereabouts secrets.
(viii) Make amends
I have come to you to make amends for my misconduct.
(ix) Play havoc
The rain played havoc with our garden party arrangements.
(vi) Work wonders
This new medicine works wonders with my headaches.
(b) Use the following idioms in your own sentences.
(i) Become a byword
His name has become a byword for honesty in the community.
(ii) Cut a sorry figure
She cut a sorry figure in the presence of her ugly husband.
(iii) Eat a humble pie
At last the proud Indian Army had to eat a humble pie in the 1965 War.
(iv) Flog a dead horse
We have already discussed this problem thrice. Please do not flog the dead horse.
(v) Make a clean breast
He made a clean breast of his guilt before the judge.
(vi) Make a face
He made a face at me to humble me before the teacher.
(vii) Pocket an insult
He abused me in the presence of my teacher and I had to pocket an insult.
(viii) Pull a long face
He pulled a long face at his insult in the meeting.
(ix) Smell a rat
I smell a rat in your plan.
(x) Take a fancy
The artist took a fancy to that beautiful painting.
(c) Use the following idioms in your own sentences.
(i) Bell the cat
Everyone was unhappy with the officer but no one was ready to bell the cat.
(ii) Break the ice
All were sitting silent in the meeting. At last, I broke the ice.
(iii) Break the news
The doctor had to break the news to Najma about her husband's cancer.
(iv) Bury the hatchet
Let us bury the hatchet and be friends again.
(v) Carry the day
Our team didn't play well at first, but we carried the day in the end.
(vi) Face the music
The politicians have to face the music.
(vii) Grease the palms
He greased the palms of the policeman and got his work done.
(viii) Hit the mark  
His debts have hit the Rs. 3 million mark.
(ix) Kick the bucket
The patient kicked the bucket last night.
(x) Steal the show
All the singers were good, but Atif Aslam stole the show.
(d) Use the following idioms in your own sentences.
(i) Add insult to injury
He insulted me at first and then abused me. In this way, he added insult to injury.
(ii) Beat about the bush
Do not beat about the bush and come to the point.
(iii) Burn the candle at both ends
When exams are drawn near, students try to burn the candle at both ends.
(iv) Burst into tears
The child burst into tears at the loss of his toy.
(v) Cast pearls before swine
Don't bother explaining Shakespeare to children. It would be like casting pearls before swine.
(vi) Die in harness
Quaid-e-Azam died in harness on 11th September, 1948.
(vii) End in smoke
All his effort to start a new business ended in smoke.
(viii) Fall in love with
I fell in love with the red car and bought it at once.
(ix) Leave in the lurch
The husband left her in the lurch and now she is leading a miserable life.
(x) Live from hand to mouth
When my father was out of work, we had to live from hand to mouth.

QUESTION NO. 19

(a) Use the following idioms in your own sentences.
(i) A fishy deal
Their treaty proved a fishy deal.
(ii) A Freudian slip
She spoke by chance that she liked Mr. Aslam, which was a Freudian slip.
(iii) A maiden speech
His maiden speech in the Assembly was successful.
(iv) Crocodile tears
The step-mother shed crocodile tears at her son's death.
(v) Damocles' sword
The Latin American debt is overhanging American banks like the Damocles' sword.
(vi) Dutch courage
It was a Dutch courage that made him attack the policeman.
(vii) French leave
He got tired with his job, so he took French leave.
(viii) Pandora's box
The publication of this book opened up a Pandora's box in politics.
(ix) The underdog
The underdog in a Muslim society must be treated well. 
(x) Thumbnail sketch
The manager gave a thumbnail sketch of his plans.
(b) Use the following idioms in your own sentences.
(i) All and sundry
All and sundry went to see the village fair.
(ii) Bag and baggage
He has left Lahore bag and baggage.
(iii) Few and far between
Schools in villages are few and far between.
(iv) First and foremost
First and foremost, we should take care of our health.
(v) Flesh and blood
Flesh and blood cannot tolerate this act of cruelty.
(vi) Null and void
The contract was declared null and void.
(vii) Part and parcel
Hard work is a part and parcel of success.
(viii) Rank and file
The rank and file of the country stood up against the king.
(ix) Root and branch
The company has been transformed root and branch by the new management.
(x) To and fro
The flowers were swinging to and fro in the cold wind.
(c) Use the following idioms in your own sentences.
(i) A blue stocking
She is not well educated but she is a blue stocking.
(ii) A broken reed
Do not tell your secrets to him because he is a broke reed.
(iii) A dark horse
He proved a dark horse and stood first in the annual examination.
(iv) A laughing stock
If I wear that hat, I shall be the laughing stock of the village.
(v) A live wire
Our new principal is a man of action. He is a live wire.
(vi) A rolling stone
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
(vii) A scape goat
All of them were guilty but Aslam was made a scape goat.
(viii) A sugar daddy
The woman went off on a nice winter holiday with her sugar daddy.
(ix) A turn coat
A politician in Pakistan is often a turn coat.
(x) A wet blanket
Aslam is fun at parties, but his brother is a wet blanket.
(d) Use the following idioms in your own sentences.
(i) At a loss
We were at a loss about what to do with a broken computer.
(ii) At a stretch
She works at computer for hours at a stretch.
(iii) At daggers drawn
All the religious parties in Pakistan are at daggers drawn with one another.
(iv) At logger heads
We are at logger heads with the company over their plans to build a new factory.
(v) For good
He is leaving this place for good.
(vi) In cold blood
He was murdered in cold blood.
(vii) In the pipeline
The new education policy is in the pipeline.
(viii) On the anvil
The new education policy is on the anvil.
(ix) Out at elbows
He always wears that old jacket although it is out at elbows.
(x) Under a cloud
He left his job under a cloud.

QUESTION NO. 20

(a) Use the following phrasal verbs in your own sentences.
(i) Back away
You should back away from the fire.
(ii) Back out
He backed out of the contract at the last moment.
(iii) Bear with
I could not bear with this angry mood.
(iv) Bear up
You should bear up the hardships of life bravely.
(v) Beat back
The Pakistan Army beat back the Indian Army in 1965.
(vi) Blow out
I blew out the candles one by one.
(vii) Break down
The car broke down on the way.
(viii) Break into
A thief broke into his house last night.
(ix) Break out
Cholera has broken out in the city now-a-days.
(x) Buy off
The mobster tried to buy off the jury.
(b) Use the following phrasal verbs in your own sentences.
(i) Come about
How did this damage come about?
(ii) Come off
What time does this party come off?
(iii) Carry off
The kidnappers carried the child off.
(iv) Drop in
I hate to drop in on people when they aren't expecting me.
(v) Do away with
This chemical will do away with the stain in your sink.
(vi) Fall out
The husband fell out with his wife over a trifle.
(vii) Fall in with
I fell in with an old friend on my way.
(viii) Give up
He has given up smoking for ever.
(ix) Go about
There is a lot of this flu going about these days.
(x) Look down upon
We should not look down upon the poor.
(c) Use the following phrasal verbs in your own sentences.
(i) Make off with
The robber made away with the jewelry.
(ii) Make up for
We must make up for the lost time.
(iii) Pass away
The patient passed away in the morning.
(iv) Pull down
They are going to pull down the old building today.
(v) Pull up
He pulled up the dog out of the pond.
(vi) Put off
Do not put off your meeting.
(vii) Put up with
I cannot put up with my insult.
(viii) Run down
Due to illness, his health has run down.
(ix) Run over
A child was run over by a car.
(x) Run up against
My motor bike ran up against a car last night.
(d) Use the following phrasal verbs in your own sentences.
(i) Set up for
He sets himself up for an experienced driver.
(ii) Stand by
He stood by me in poverty.
(iii) Stand for
In a traffic signal, the red light stands for "stop."
(iv) Stick to
Please stick to the traditions of Islam at every cost.
(v) Take down
Take down what I dictate you.
(vi) Take in
I was taken in by his friendly manners.
(vii) Turn away
The police officer turned the pedestrians away from the scene of the accident.
(viii) Turn down
She has turned down my proposal.
(ix) Walk away with
His servant walked away with his money.
(x) Wear out
I wore out my shoes in less than a month.
QUESTION NO. 21
Write an application for (job).

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (city)
April 22, 2014

---------------
---------------
---------------

Subject: Appointment as a -----------------------------------
Sir, 
    I have come to know through a reliable source that some posts of __________ lie vacant at you firm/institution under your kind control. I offer myself as a candidate for one of them. I will be available to take up my duties any time and would be glad to work under your kind supremacy. 
      I am giving below a resume of my qualification and other particulars. It will show that I am the person you need in your office/firm/institution. 
Name: A.B.C.
Date of Birth: DD/MM/YY
Education: M.A./M.Sc. __________
Experience: _____ years
Address: Examination Hall, City A.B.C
Contact: **********
Others: I am an amateur cricketer, competent debater and have an excellent command on English Language.
(Photocopies of necessary certificates are attached herewith)
     I would appreciate your considering me as a candidate for this post and if appointed I would work to the entire satisfaction of my superiors. I will leave no stone unturned. 
Thanking you in anticipation. 

Yours obediently, 
X.Y.Z.


EXAMPLES WITH HINTS
1. Write an application in response to the following advertisement. 
WANTED
Accounts Clerks in a well established
Multi National Firm, P.O. Box No. 
450, Islamabad 
(Multi National Firm, P.O. Box No. 450, Islamabad, Accounts Clerk, accounts clerks, firm, firm, M.B.A., 5) 
2. Write an application to the director of education for the post of an English teacher.
(Director of Education, Lahore, Teacher, teachers, institution, institution, M.A. English, 5)
3. Write an application in response to the following advertisement. 
Wanted active and smart young graduate lady 
to work as Telephone Operator in a 
Multi National Company P.O. Box 45, Lahore. 
(Multi National Company, P.O. Box 45, Lahore, Telephone Operator, telephone operators, company, company, M.A. English, IELTS, 2)
4. Write an application to the director of a theatre to case to in his stage drama as a hero/heroine. 
(Director of Theatre, Lahore, Hero, Heroes, theatre,theatre, B.A., 2)
5. Write an application to a landlord to hire you as a manager of his farm servants. 
(Landlord, Gujjrat, Manager, managers, farms, farms, B.A., 2)
6. Write an application to the General Manager of a Cement Factory for a job of a Mechanical Engineer. 
(General Manager, Cement Factory Wah Cannt, Mechanical Engineer, mechanical engineers, firm, firm, M.Sc. Chemistry, 5)
8. Write an application to the Finance Manager of a Multinational Firm for the appointment of an Account Clerk. 
9. Write an application to the Finance Manage of a Multinational Firm for the appointment of an Audit Officer.
13. Write an application to the General Manager of a Multinational Firm for the appointment of a Medical Representative.
16. Write an application to the Director Education (Schools) for the appointment of a teacher.
10. Write a job application to the District Coordinating Officer for the post of a Computer Operator.
11. Write a job application to the Accountant General for the Post of an Assistant. 
12. Write a job application to the Director of a Private Firm for the post of an Accountant.


QUESTION NO. 22
(a) Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper expressing your views about "______________".


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (city)
April 22, 2013

The Editor,
The Nation,
Lahore.

Subject: ____________________________________________________________

Sir, 
    I request you to publish this letter in the esteemed and widely read columns of your paper. I hope that your highly reputed newspaper can be very useful to pave the way for the solution of this problem. It will definitely be helpful for the public and government to get information about the gravity of the problem, which will certainly cause its solution. Sometime ago there were complaints in the newspaper about 
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
It was claimed that this type of negligence would not be tolerated. But the situation is still the same and complaints are persistent. In this respect, to remove this undesirable situation, I request the following steps:
(i) The government herself should take suitable steps to get rid of the embarrassment. 
(ii) The public should also be warned to be careful and wise in future. 
(iii) Concerned staff should be made more alert and active. 
The case is of vital importance because it concerns the general betterment. I hope that something will be done immediately to remove the fears and misgivings from the public mind. 

Yours truly, 
X.Y.Z.


(b) Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper expressing your views about "Reckless Driving".

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (city)
April 22, 2013

The Editor,
The Nation,
Lahore.

Subject: Reckless Driving
Sir, 
     Through your esteemed paper I want to draw the attention of people, traffic police and government towards the issue of reckless driving. Reckless driving is a major moving traffic violation. It is usually a more serious offense than careless driving, improper driving, or driving without care and attention. Reckless driving is, in fact, a mental state in which the driver displays a wanton disregard for the rules of the road; the driver often misjudges common driving procedures, often causing accidents and other damages.
     Reckless driving is a major cause of road accidents.It is a great threat to life and property. Thus Government, traffic police and masses should adopt the following measures to check this problem.
(i) Government should establish maximum check posts on the roads.
(ii) The police should take a constant watch over the speed of the vehicles. 
(iii) The police should conduct surprise raids frequently. 
(iv) Severe action should be taken against the defaulters.
(v) The licenses of the drivers exceeding the speed limit should be cancelled forthwith.
(vi) The company whose drivers too often neglect the laws should be warned. If warning proves ineffective, its route-permit should be cancelled. 
(vii) The passengers should refuse to continue their journey in a vehicle not observing the traffic rules. 

Hope to get published my thoughts about reckless driving.

Yours truly, 
X.Y.Z.



QUESTION NO. 23
(a) Write a dialogue between two friends about the waywardness among the youth.

Dialogue Between Two Friends about the Waywardness among Youth

Characters: Asif and Raza (two friends)
Time: Noon
Scene: Asif and Raza are coming back from college on a van. They happen to see some students smoking openly on the roadside. This induces them to discuss about the waywardness among youth. 

DIALOGUE
Asif: Alas! Our young generation has fallen a victim of waywardness. It is following its own capricious, wanton and depraved inclination.
Raza: I agree with you. I do not see any check and balance by elders, parents and teachers. 
Asif: The waywardness in the society is on the rise, mainly due to the ill effects of electronic and print media. 
Raza: Yes. Indian movies, misuse of mobile phones and internet are the major causes of waywardness among youth. 
Asif: Moreover, Western culture is leading to the increasing tendency of excessive smoking, alcoholism and drug culture among the youth. 
Raza: The spreading trend of waywardness in the youth is eroding the vitals of our society. 
Asif: Yeh. The rehabilitation of these unfortunate youngsters is the need of hour. 
Raza: Parents should keep an eye on their children. 
Asif: Government and police should take some strick measures to check this problem. 
Raza: In my opinion, well-timed Nikkah is indispensable to prevent youth from waywardness. 
(The van applies brakes. Asif's stop approaches. He shakes hand with Raza and alights form the van) 

(b) General Dialogue
Characters: A(junior) and B(senior)
Time: Afternoon
Scene: House/Bazaar/Class-room/Resturant

DIALOGUE
A: Assalam-o-Alaikum! How are you?
B: Wa Alaikum Salam! I'm fine. What are you doing now-a-days?
A: I'm doing my B.A./ I'm doing a job at ________. 
B: How is your life going?
A: It's fine. Problems are the part and parcel of life. 
B: What's your problems?
A: Load shedding/inflation/rising prices/------- is the major problem confronted to every citizen of Pakistan. 
B: I agree with you. It's all due to the negligence and carelessness of government. 


A: What are your engagements now-a-days. 


B: I'm doing a job at _________


A: _________________________________________________
B: _________________________________________________
A: _________________________________________________
B: _________________________________________________
A: _________________________________________________
B: _________________________________________________
A: Sorry for interruption. My cell phone is ringing. May I attend the call. 
B: Surely!
A: My father/mother/wife is calling me at home. 
B: Is it an emergency?
A: A little bit.
B: Ok! You can go. 
A: Nice to meet you. 
B: Wish you good luck. May Allah help to solve your problems and reduce your cares, worries, tensions and frustrations. See you again. 
(They shake hands and depart) 


QUESTION NO. 24
(a) Write a dialogue between a student and a teacher on the importance of book reading.
(b) Write a dialogue between two men about dearness.

QUESTION NO. 25
(a) Translate the following paragraph into English.
TRANSLATION
     Nations get progress in the world on the basis of their contemplations. In history, there is no trace of such a nation which gained a repute without contemplations. The Muslims beacon such people who worshiped natural phenomena and when man was deprived of every kind of faith, he was not in the habit to understand life. The Muslims gave this man a new resolution and inculcated the mysteries of the universe. But, alas, the Muslims have abandoned  the search for knowledge now. That is why they are second fiddle in the whole world.
(b) Translate the following paragraph into English.
TRANSLATION
     We know that there is wide social unrest in our country. Most people are unhappy and dissatisfied with their present lot. People are conceived about the dangers of war, dearness and the increase in the crimes. Poor social and economic conditions are a cause of unrest among students. For instance unemployment incline them to think that their education will not be able to help them in getting a job. Evils such as fraud, lie, injustice and lack of equality are also a source of worries among students. 
(c) Translate the following paragraph into English.
 TRANSLATION
    In West, democracy is such type of government where there exist freedom, equality and brotherhood. In it, the real power has the people who are elected by public. The concept of Islamic democracy is much higher that it. In it the real sovereign is Allah and the basic laws have been explained in the Holy Quran. No change can be made in these laws. The representatives of public only implement those laws which are made in the light of Quran and Sunnah. 
(d) Translate the following paragraph into English.
TRANSLATION
     It is the need of hour that we should spend as little as possible on weddings. It has often been observed that both the girl's and boy's parents try to spend as much as possible on the wedding. The purpose of this expenditure is to impress others. Instead of it, the parents should ponder whether the girl and boy like each other, and are they fully ready to live with each other for good in future?