Friday, 27 February 2015


Difference Between Hosts and Guests
     Offering or accepting hospitality is a quality found in every human being. On the basis of it, Max Beerbohm in his essay "Hosts and Guests" has divided the whole mankind into two distinct classes; hosts and guests like Gelett Burgess has divided it into Bromides and Sulphites. Although this classification is only on the theoratical level, he has clearly drawn the general, temperamental and circumstantial differences between these two classes. 
     Firstly, the writer tells the general difference between these two classes. A person gets the label of a host if he invites someone to dine with him at a restaurant, orders the meal and bears the expenses. On the other hand a person gets the label of a guest if he accepts the invitation with delight, praises the food while eating, does not pay the bill and feels a pleasant sensation of not paying for it. 
     Secondly, the writer gives the temperamental dissimilarity between these two groups. Every human being is either a host or a guest by instinct. He is a born-host or a born-guest. His instinct dominates his personality. A person is a host if he possesses an active or positive instinct to offer hospitality. On the other hand a person is a guest if he has a passive or negative instinct to accept the hopitality. 
     Thirdly, there are circumstantial differences between hosts and guests. Circumstances react on the character. Conventionally, the rich give and the poor receive. Riches often nurture the instincts of a host and poverty usually fosters the instincts of a guest. The rich and the poor is an undisputed division, however, the rich as hosts and the poor as guests is a poor one. Some poor persons also love to entertain others. 

Tuesday, 24 February 2015


Explain the following lines with reference to the context.
It is very good that we have rebels
You may not find it very good to be one. 

(a) It is very good ---------- good to be one.
(i) Poem: The Rebel
(ii) Poet: Dennis Joseph Enright
(i) Occurrence: 29-30/30
(ii) Content: In this poem the poet discusses the wavering behaviour of people. These people do what the common people do not do, and do not do what the common lot do. The poet calls them "rebels". He also thinks that their presence is good for society. 
     In these lines the poet says that the presence of "rebels" in a society is very good and beneficial. These "rebels" are, in fact, unconventional persons who act against social values and traditions. Their outwardly rebellious attitude creates fun and promotes variety in the society. In other words, they bring happiness in life and increase the cultural wealth of the society. There is not doubt that education and age have made most of the people civilized, sophisticated and urbane. Therefore, these people do not like to become "rebels". But these people should tolerate "rebels" in the society for their own benefit. 

Tuesday, 10 February 2015


Eva's Refusal to Rosen's Help
     Hitler kills relatives, migration ruins business, disease snatches husband and daughters become burden. So Eva is in a great predicament. God takes pity and sends an angel of help named Rosen. However, Eva rejects all his offers of help because she likes self-dependence, possesses self-respect and loves her lat husband very much. 
     Firstly, Eva wants to lead an independent life. She thinks that nobody will marry a poor widow with two daughters. Even Rosen is ready for marriage but she refuses. She fears that the sick Rosen will soon leave her in the lurch like that of her sick husband. Thus she says, "I had enough with sick men". 
      Secondly, she is a paragon of self-respect. She has a firm belief in her own integrity. Rosen's pity, charity, love and marriage proposal all hurt her self-respect. She prefers starvation and loneliness to disgrace of her self-respect. Hence she plainly says no to each and every offer of help by Rosen.
     Thirdly, she has a great love for her late husband. She still calls hem "My Alex". She does not want to let his name down. In the end it seems that she goes to Rosen's window to surrender. But it is just the hallucination of Rosen as he wants to see her breaking down before him. But Eva never breaks down. 

Wednesday, 4 February 2015


Quarrel Between Ustad Mangu 
and the Gora Soldier
     It was the morning of 1st April, 1935 in South Asia. The day when a new constitution was supposed to be promulgated. Ustad Mangu, the hero of the story, "The New Constitution" by Saadat Hasan Manto, got up earlier than usual. He set up his tonga and came on the road. He moved about in the city to see colour and light, but there was none.
     He went to the cantonment. There he saw the Gora soldier who had abused him the year before in the drunken state. He was waiting for a conveyance. Mangu drove towards him. The Gora soldier wanted to be carried to the dancing girls' bazaar. To recover the amount spent on the new plume of his horse, Mangu demanded five rupees for the service.
     The demand of five rupees caused a violent bickering between the two. The Gora soldier hit Mangu with his stick. Mangu's thigh was injured. He flew into exasperation. He thought that the new constitution was in force. So under the illusion of equal rights, he hit a blow under the chin of the soldier. Many blows followed. He gave the soldier a sound beating.  
     In desperation, the soldier began to shout for help. Soon a crowd gathered there. Police also appeared on the scene. Mangu was apprehended. He shouted, "New constitution!" "New constitution!" But he was told that there was no new constitution. At last, the common Indian was put behind the bars and it got proved that the British were still in rule.