Monday, 30 March 2015

THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA BY EARNEST HEMINGWAY

Every Day is a New Day
     Nature has its own cycles. The cycle of time in which the earth makes a complete rotation on its axis is called a day. Although, a day is a repetitive natural phenomenon yet no day is same. Every day is a new day because it is extremely different, a new beginning and a new opportunity.
     Firstly, every day is a different day. It has a different name, different date and different possibilities. When Manolin reminds Santiago of his an erstwhile unlucky spell of 87 days, Santiago says, "It could not happen twice". Thus no day is like bygone days. It is absolutely new.
     Secondly, every day is a new beginning. A man is reborn every day. It is the first day of the rest of his life. It is a clean slate. If man performs bad of good deeds the day before, the canvas is wiped clean as soon as he wakes up the next morning.
     Thirdly, every day is a new opportunity. The chief beauty about a new day is that no man can consume it in advance. Every new day lies ready for him, as perfect, as unspoiled. So man should be optimistic about every day. In fact, Santiago rightly hopes that 85th will be a lucky day.

Saturday, 14 March 2015

TOLERANCE BY E.M. FORSTER

Finding Fanaticism in Other People
     Fanaticism means excessive intolerance of opposing views. It is an unnecessay and unreasonable enthusiasm for one's doctrine or stand-point. In his essay "Tolerance", E.M. Forster says, "It is very easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot in oneself". If we deeply look into the matter, we find out that it is really so. It is because people lack tolerance. They are egoists, self-confirming and findfaulters. 
     Firstly, it is easy to see fanaticism in others and difficult to spot in oneself because people lack tolerance. Tolerance is a dull virtue so it is almost missing in all spheres of life -- in the queue, in the street, in the railway station, in the office, at the factory, at the telephone and above all among classes, races and nations. Absense of tolerance and compromise makes people narrow-minded and fanatic. 
     Secondly, people are egocentric. They consider tolerance a weakness or surrender. These people are responsible for the colour questions and racial prejudices. They produce hatred among people and disturb the peace of society. They do not understand that putting up with people does not mean yielding to them. It only means to be broad-minded, libral, calm and patient. 
     Thirdly, people are self-confirmig and findfaulters. They consider their thinking, beliefs and creeds correct, truthful and the highest of all. They do not respect the ideas of others. For example, the Englishmen ususlly accuse the Nazis of being intolerant to the Jews. But are they not equally guilty of being prejudicial to the Black? Thus the writer rightly says, "It is very easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot in oneself". 

Saturday, 7 March 2015

TOLERANCE BY E.M. FORSTER

(c) Finding Fanaticism in Other People
     Fanaticism means excessive intolerance of opposing views. It is an unnecessay and unreasonable enthusiasm for one's doctrine or stand-point. In his essay "Tolerance", E.M. Forster says, "It is very easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot in oneself". If we deeply look into the matter, we find out that it is really so. It is because people lack tolerance. They are egoists, self-confirming and findfaulters. 
     Firstly, it is easy to see fanaticism in others and difficult to spot in oneself because people lack tolerance. Tolerance is a dull virtue so it is almost missing in all spheres of life -- in the queue, in the street, in the railway station, in the office, at the factory, at the telephone and above all among classes, races and nations. Absense of tolerance and compromise makes people narrow-minded and fanatic. 
     Secondly, people are egocentric. They consider tolerance a weakness or surrender. These people are responsible for the colour questions and racial prejudices. They produce hatred among people and disturb the peace of society. They do not understand that putting up with people does not mean yielding to them. It only means to be broad-minded, libral, calm and patient. 
     Thirdly, people are self-confirmig and findfaulters. They consider their thinking, beliefs and creeds correct, truthful and the highest of all. They do not respect the ideas of others. For example, the Englishmen ususlly accuse the Nazis of being intolerant to the Jews. But are they not equally guilty of being prejudicial to the Black? Thus the writer rightly says, "It is very easy to see fanaticism in other people, but difficult to spot in oneself". 

Friday, 27 February 2015

HOSTS AND GUESTS BY MAX BEERBOHM

Difference Between Hosts and Guests
     Offering or accepting hospitality is a quality found in every human being. On the basis of it, Max Beerbohm in his essay "Hosts and Guests" has divided the whole mankind into two distinct classes; hosts and guests like Gelett Burgess has divided it into Bromides and Sulphites. Although this classification is only on the theoratical level, he has clearly drawn the general, temperamental and circumstantial differences between these two classes. 
     Firstly, the writer tells the general difference between these two classes. A person gets the label of a host if he invites someone to dine with him at a restaurant, orders the meal and bears the expenses. On the other hand a person gets the label of a guest if he accepts the invitation with delight, praises the food while eating, does not pay the bill and feels a pleasant sensation of not paying for it. 
     Secondly, the writer gives the temperamental dissimilarity between these two groups. Every human being is either a host or a guest by instinct. He is a born-host or a born-guest. His instinct dominates his personality. A person is a host if he possesses an active or positive instinct to offer hospitality. On the other hand a person is a guest if he has a passive or negative instinct to accept the hopitality. 
     Thirdly, there are circumstantial differences between hosts and guests. Circumstances react on the character. Conventionally, the rich give and the poor receive. Riches often nurture the instincts of a host and poverty usually fosters the instincts of a guest. The rich and the poor is an undisputed division, however, the rich as hosts and the poor as guests is a poor one. Some poor persons also love to entertain others.