Monday, 26 January 2015


Role of Nick Adams
     Ole Anderson, Al, Max, George, Sam and Nick Adams are the main characters of the story, "The Killers". However, the protagonist is Nick Adams. He is a typical Hemingway hero who is learning "the code". He is a teenage boy, responsible citizen and peace-loving individual.  
     Firstly, he is a little dude of about eighteen or nineteen who works at Henry's Lunch-Room with George and Sam in Summit. His age becomes evident when Al and Max mock his masculinity by calling him a "bright boy". Moreover, when Sam says, "Little boys always know what to do", his teenage gets proved. 
     Secondly, he is a responsible citizen. After the departure of Al and Max, he goes to Hirsch's Boarding House. There he warns Ole Anderson of the impending danger to Ole's life from Al and Max. He also offers him his help by saying, "Don't you want me to go and see the police"?
     Thirdly, he is a peace-loving person. He recognizes the horror of evil and attempts to do something about it, but when he cannot, he decides to run away from the area of gangsters. Thus when he comes back Henry's Lunch-Room, he says to George, "I'm going to get out of this town". 

Friday, 23 January 2015


Accursed Education
     The process by which society transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another is called education. Education is considered a blessing. However, in his poem, "Snake", D.H. Lawrence thinks of it a curse. It is because it crushes his feelings of affection and sense of beauty for the snake, and it induces him to kill it. 
     Firstly, he thinks of his education as accursed because it demolishes his feelings of affection for the snake. The natural man in the poet is delighted and honoured to have this reptile at his water-trough.However, the educated man in the poet warns him that snake is a mortal foe of man. Hence the natural feelings of affection are defeated by the rational feelings of hatred. 
     Secondly, he calls his education accursed because it does not allow him to appreciate the beauty of the snake. No doubt, the unique shape, colouration and locomotion of snake makes it the most enjoy the beauty, fairness and grace of the snake but  beautiful animal in the world. The instincts of the poet wants tothe ophidiophobia generated by his education ceases him to do so. 

     Thirdly, he condemns his education because it misleads him. It compels him to assassinate the snake. He hits it with a log. However, the snake does not come back to bite him. It proves the innocence and harmlessness of the snake. Thus the attempt to kill the snake was not an act of bravery but of Vandalism committed by an educated man. 

Sunday, 18 January 2015


Wish to be Young Again
     Yeats composed "Politics" in May 24, 1938 when he was 73 years old. In this poem, when he sees a beautiful young girls standing before him, he wishes to be young again. He wishes so because youth is the best period for romance, escapism is always pleasant and he found a new vigour after undergoing the Steinach Operation.
     Firstly, youth is the prime period for romance. The girl standing before the poet is quite young to be his daughter. She needs the excitement of youth which the aged poet lacks. The development of love affair between the aged and the young is almost impossible. Thus to romance with the young girl, the poet wishes to be young again.
     Secondly, the poet is an escapist. In order to avoid the stark realities of life like politics, traveling, war and war's alarms, he wants to flee into his past. His past was full of amour when he used to love Maud Gonne, his childhood beloved. Hence to get pleasure, he wants to escape into his past i.e., his youth.
     Thirdly, after undergoing the Steinach Operation in 1934, when he was aged 69, he found a new machismo in himself. It is evident from both his poetry and his intimate relations with young women. Thus he wants to hold the girl standing before him in his arms. He wants to embrace her. In other words, he wants to be his young lover. 

Tuesday, 13 January 2015


Keats's Fears
     "When I Have Fears" is a beautiful sonnet in which John Keats gives expression of his desolate fears. The impending demise of Keats creates limitations which become his fears. He fears that he will not be able to achieve fame, enjoy beauty and savour love because he will sooner die of tuberculosis.
     The first quatrain describes his fear of not getting fame as a poet. He worries that his premature death will leave his poetry in parenthesis. Though he has a "teeming brain", full of ideas, images and thoughts yet he will not become a Shakespeare. His death is hovering over him.
     The second quatrain highlights his fear of not getting enough time to enjoy the physical beauty of Nature. He says that heaven is boasting of its beauty with its starry nights and shadowy clouds. Unfortunately, his anticipated death will deprive him of relishing these beautiful scenes.
     The third quatrain expresses his fear of not getting a chance to develop a love-affair. His erstwhile beloved, Fanny Brawn, has already deserted him. Now he fears that he will never become an inamorato of anybody. Thus he says in the last couplet, "On the shore of the wide world I stand alone".